Archives of Acoustics, 18, 4, pp. 553-575, 1993
Bias and standard deviation mean and maximum Doppler frequency estimators
The performance of four spectral techniques (FFT, AR Burg, ARMA and Arithmetic Fourier Transform AFT) for mean and maximum frequency estimation of the Doppler spectra is described. The mean frequency was computed as the first spectral moment of the spectrum with and without the noise subtraction. Different definitions of fmax were used: frequency at which spectral power decreases down to 0.1 of its maximum value, modified threshold crossing method  and novel geometrical method. "Goodness" and efficiency of estimators were determined calculating the bias and standard deviation of the estimated mean and maximum frequency of the computer simulated Doppler spectra. The power of analysed signals was assumed to have the exponential distribution function. The SNR ratios were changed over the range from 0 to 20dB. The AR and ARMA models orders selections were done independently according to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). It was found, that the ARMA model computed according to SVD criterion had the best overall performance and produced the results with the smallest bias and standard deviation. The preliminary studies of the AFT proved its attractiveness in rea1-time computation, but its statistical properties were worse than that of the other estimators. It was noticed that with noise subtraction the bias of fmean decreased for all tested methods. The geometrical method of fmax estimation was found to be more accurate of other tested methods, especially for narrow band signals.
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