Archives of Acoustics, 44, 4, pp. 761–773, 2019
10.24425/aoa.2019.129731

Noise and Vibration Risk Assessment for the Operators of Crawler Loaders

Eleonora CARLETTI
National Research Council of Italy - Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER)
Italy

Francesca PEDRIELLI
National Research Council of Italy - Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER)
Italy

During work, earth-moving machines generate significant levels of noise and vibration that can be harmful for the operators; therefore the analysis of the noise and vibration conditions at the driving position is of great importance for the risk assessment. Compact loaders have become a pressing challenge
as they are extremely hazardous referring to noise and vibration emissions, especially in their crawler version where further relevant noise and vibration are generated by the hard contact between track belt and ground.

This paper reports the results of investigations carried out on three crawler compact loaders in different operating conditions. The main purpose was to investigate the noise and vibration values transmitted to the operators in some working conditions and use these data to obtain reliable estimates of the exposure to noise, to whole-body and to hand-arm transmitted vibrations, as well as to evaluate the related risk levels. Vibration signals transmitted to the operator were acquired on the seat and the machine control lever in accordance with the procedures specified in ISO 2631-1 and ISO 5349-1. At the same time, noise signals were acquired at the operator’s ear following the procedure reported in ISO 11201. Vibration signals were also acquired on the cabin floor with the main purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of the machine seats in reducing the vibration transmission. Finally, the noise and vibration exposure risks were evaluated on the basis of the health and safety requirements established in 2003/10/EC and 2002/44/EC Directives.
Keywords: noise exposure; whole-body vibration; hand-arm vibration; maximum exposure time; seat transmissibility
Full Text: PDF

References

Bhiwapurkar M.K., Saran V.H., Harsha S.P. (2018), Effects of posture and vibration magnitude on seat to head transmissibility during exposure to fore-and-aft vibration, Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, 38, 2, 826–838, doi: 10.1177/1461348418756019.

Biéret C., Malgras I., Gilbert J.-P., Courtois M. (2009), Mechanical vibrations evaluation for the earthwork machine drivers [in French: Évaluation du risque vibratoire pour les conducteurs d'engins de terrassement], Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l’Environnement, 70, 644–645, doi: 10.1016/j.admp.2009.10.002.

Bovenzi M. (2010), A prospective cohort study of exposure-response relationship for vibration-induced white finger, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 67, 38–46, doi: 10.1136/oem.2009.046128.

Bovenzi M., Hulshof C.T.J. (1999), An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain (1986–1997), International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 72, 351–365 doi: 10.1007/s004200050387.

Carletti E., Pedrielli F. (2018), Tri-axial evaluation of the vibration transmitted to the operators of crawler compact loaders, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 68, 46–56, doi: 10.1016/j.ergon.2018.06.007.

Committee for European Construction Equipment (2018), CECE Annual Economic Report 2018, https://www.cece.eu/our-sector-in-figures/cece-annual-economic-report.

CEN/TR 15350 (2013), Mechanical vibration – Guideline for the assessment of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration using available information including that provided by manufacturers of machinery.

Costa N., Arezes P.M. (2009), The influence of operator driving characteristics in whole-body vibration exposure from electrical fork-lift trucks, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39, 34–38, doi /10.1016/j.ergon.2008.06.004.

Deboli R., Calvo A., Preti C. (2017), Whole-body vibration: measurement of horizontal and vertical transmissibility of an agricultural tractor seat, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 58, 69–78, doi: 10.1016/j.ergon.2017.02.002.

De La Hoz-Torres M.L., López-Alonso M., Ruiz Padillo D.P., Martínez-Aires M.D. (2017), Analysis of whole-body vibrations transmitted by earth moving machinery, Proceedings of SHO 2017 International Symposium on Occupational Safety and Hygiene, pp. 453–456, Guimarães, doi: 10.1201/9781315164809-85.

Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibration), Official Journal of the European Communities, L177, 6 July 2002.

Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 February 2003 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (noise), Official Journal of the European Communities, L42, 15 February 2003.

Directive 2006/42/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 May 2006 on machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC (recast), Official Journal of the European Communities L157, 9 June 2006.

Eriksson H.P. et al. (2018), Longitudinal study of occupational noise exposure and joint effects with job strain and risk for coronary heart disease and stroke in Swedish men, BMJ Open, 8, e019160, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019160.

Esmaeelpour M.M., Shoja E., Zakeriyan S.A., Foroushani A.R., Gharaee M. (2018), The effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on discomfort, heart rate and reaction time in men 20 to 30 years, Iran Occupational Health Journal, 15, 10–20.

Griffin M.J. (1986), Evaluation of vibration with respect to human response, SAE Technical Paper 860047, 11–34, doi: 10.4271/860047.

Griffin M.J., Brett M.W. (1997), Effects of fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical whole-body vibration on a head-positioning task, Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 68, 1115–1122.

Hirose Y., Enomoto M., Sasaki T., Yasuda E., Hada M. (2013), Ride Comfort Evaluation of Horizontal Vibration in Tractor-Trailer Considering Human Body Motion of Driver, SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0992, 6 pages, doi: 10.4271/2013-01-0992.

Horng, C.T. et al. (2015), Effects of horizontal acceleration on human visual acuity and stereopsis, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 910–926, doi: 10.3390/ijerph120100910.

ISO 2631-1 (1997) and Amendment 1 (2010), Mechanical vibration and shock – Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration – Part 1: General requirements.

ISO 5008 (2002) and Corrigendum 1 (2005), Agricultural wheeled tractors and field machinery – Measurement of whole-body vibration of the operator.

ISO 5349-1 (2001), Mechanical vibration – Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration – Part 1: General requirements.

ISO 6395 (2008), Earth-moving machinery – Determination of sound power level – Dynamic test conditions.

ISO 11201 (2010), Acoustics – Noise emitted by machinery and equipment – Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane with negligible environmental corrections.

ISO 10326-1 (2016), Mechanical vibration – Laboratory method for evaluating vehicle seat vibration – Part 1: Basic requirements.

Kristiansen J. et al. (2009), Stress reactions to cognitively demanding tasks and open-plan office noise, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82, 631–641, doi: 10.1007/s00420-008-0367-4.

Kubo M., Terauchi F., Aoki H., Matsuoka Y. (2001), An investigation into a synthetic vibration model for humans: an investigation into a mechanical vibration human model constructed according to the relations between the physical, psychological and physiological reactions of humans exposed to vibration, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 27, 219–232, doi: 10.1016/S0169-8141(00)00052-4.

Li X., Song Z., Wang T., Zheng Y., Ning X. (2016), Health impacts of construction noise on workers: A quantitative assessment model based on exposure measurement, Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 721–731, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.100.

Ljungberg J.K., Neely G. (2007), Stress, subjective experience and cognitive performance during exposure to noise and vibration, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 44–54, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2006.12.003.

Mansfield N.J., Maeda S. (2011), Subjective ratings of whole-body vibration for single- and multi-axis motion, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130, 3723–3728, doi: 10.1121/1.3654014.

Mansfield N.J., Newell G.S., Notini L. (2009), Earth moving machine whole-body vibration and the contribution of sub-1Hz components to ISO 2631-1 metrics, Industrial Health, 47, 402–410, doi: 10.2486/indhealth.47.402.

Niekerk J.L., Pielemeierb W.J., Greenbergb J.A. (2003), The use of seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) values to predict dynamic seat comfort, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 260, 867–888, doi: 10.1016/S0022-460X(02)00934-3.

Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska M., Dudarewicz A., Zaborowski K., Zamojska M., Sliwinska-Kowalska M. (2013), Noise induced hearing loss: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States. Noise Health 2013, 15, 55–66, doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.107157.

Peretti et al. (2019), Vibration tests on an agricultural tractor equipped with advanced vibration control systems for different configurations, Proceedings of 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, pp. 1–8, Montreal [in press].

Poole C.J.M. et al. (2019), International consensus criteria for diagnosing and staging hand–arm vibration syndrome, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 92, 117–127, doi: 10.1007/s00420-018-1359-7.

Rimmel A.N., Notini L., Mansfield N.J., Edwards D.J. (2008), Variation between manufacturers’ declared vibration emission values and those measured under simulated workplace conditions for a range of hand-held power tools typically found in the construction industry, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 38, 661–675, doi: 10.1016/j.ergon.2007.10.023.

Suter A.H. (2007), Development of standards and regulations for occupational noise, [in:] Handbook of Noise and Vibration Control, Crocker M.J. [Ed.], pp. 377–382, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Vanerkar A.P., Kulkarni N.P., Zade P.D., Kamavisdar A.S. (2008), Whole body vibration exposure in heavy earth moving machinery operators of metalliferrous mines, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 143, 239–245, doi: 10.1007/s10661-007-9972-z.

Williams W. (2013), The epidemiology of noise exposure in the Australian workforce, Noise and Health, 15, 326–331, doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.116578.

Zimmermann C.L., Cook T.M. (1997a), Effects of vibration frequency and postural changes on human responses to seated whole body vibration exposure, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 69, 165–179, doi: 10.1007/s004200050133.

Zimmermann C.L., Cook T.M., Rosecrance J.C. (1997b), Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and injuries among operating engineers: a review and guidelines for improvement, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12, 480–484, doi: 10.1080/1047322X.1997.10390031.




DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2019.129731

Copyright © Polish Academy of Sciences & Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)